Vaccination – Immunization

Vaccination - ImmunizationVaccination is the administration of antigenic material (vaccine) to stimulate adaptive immunity for a disease. Vaccines can prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by many pathogens.

Inoculation is the placement of something that will grow or reproduce, and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum, a vaccine or antigenic substance into the body of a human or animal, especially to produce or boost immunity to a specific disease.

It can also be used to refer to the communication of a disease to a living organism by transferring its causative agent into the organism.

Today the terms inoculation, vaccination and immunization are used more or less interchangeably and popularly refer to the process of artificial induction of immunity against various diseases. The micro-organism used in an inoculation is called inoculant or inoculum.

Four different types of vaccines are currently available.Biosynthetic, Quantum, Healing

-Attenuated – (weakened) live virus is used in the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), polio and the chickenpox vaccine.

-Killed – (inactivated) vaccines are made from a protein or other small pieces taken from a bacteria. These vaccines are considered to be safe, even in people with weakened immune systems. Influenza shots are an example of this type of vaccine.

-Toxoid vaccines contain a toxin or chemical made by the bacteria or virus. They make you immune to the harmful effects of the infection, rather than to the infection itself. Examples are the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines.

-Biosynthetic vaccines contain human-made substances that the immune system recognizes as infectious organisms.

Most vaccines are given by hypodermic injection as they are not absorbed reliably through the intestines. Live attenuated polio, some typhoid and some cholera vaccines are given orally in order to produce immunity based on bowels.

Like many medications, there is always the chance that an immunization can cause side effects. To minimize chances of adverse reactions the health of the child (or adult) at the time of vaccination is of outmost importance.  Read more…

 

Antibiotics and Bacterial/Viral Infections

Anti-biotics and Bacterial/Viral InfectionsOften the label bacteria or virus are used interchangeably, although there is a significant difference between the two forms.

The biggest difference between viruses and bacteria is that viruses must have a living host – like a plant, animal or human – to multiply, while most bacteria can grow on non-living surfaces. Bacteria are intracellular organisms (they live in-between cells), whereas viruses are intracellular organisms (they live inside the cell).

Antibiotics can kill bacteria but not viruses.  An example of a disease caused by bacteria is strep throat and an example of a viral infection is the flu.

Bacteria are single-celled micro-organisms and carry all the necessary material needed for their growth and reproduction. Bacteria usually reproduce asexually – meaning that each cell divides into new, genetically identical cells, with each cell functioning as an independent unit. This process is known as binary fission and each cell will continue to multiply until the growth condition diminishes. The population growth curve for bacteria is an exponential curve, whereby with each generation the number of bacteria doubles and under ideal circumstances a single E.coli bacterium can grow to more than one million bacteria in as little as three and a half hours. For one Mycobacterium tuberculosis to generate the same number, again under ideal circumstances, may take as long as ten days.

Viruses are sub-microscopic particles and are the smallest and simplest life form known, they are 10 to 100 times smaller than bacteria. Opinions differ on whether viruses are actually a form of life, or organic structures that interact with living organisms, without a cellular structure or their own metabolism, they need a host cell to reproduce. Once inside a cell they reproduce millions of copies the cell will burst and the newly created viruses are in search of another living organism to infiltrate. Viruses may cause systemic infections. Vaccines and anti-viral medication help to slow the reproduction of the virus but it is difficult to eliminate. All viruses are harmful.  Read more…